Welcome to Gwaz
/i e æ ə ä u o ɔ /
/ei) ai) eu) au) ou)/
/m n ŋ p b t d k g pf) t̠ʃ) f v s z ʃ ç h ɹ j w l ʎ/
1 /n/ is realized as [m] before bilabials and /t/ and /d/. /ɲ/ is realized as /n/ when word-final position, in free variation.
2 /s/ is realized as [z] before voiced consonants, except when word-initial, and is elided following voiced consonants , except when word-final.
3 /ʃ/ is realized as [ʒ] before voiced consonants, except when word-initial.
4 /ç/ is realized as /x/ after front vowels and /h/ after mid-vowels.
5 /h/ is realized as [?] when word-final. Also, it is reduced when word-initial except when part of a cluster.
6 /ɹ/ is realized as /r/ in vulgar or provocative speech.
7 /l/ is realized as /ʎ/ following /j/.
Vowels are long when word-final, and short elsewhere.
Voiced plosives are devoiced when word-final.
Gemination of plosives, as well as /m n f s ç/, can occur word-medially, and is indicated by doubling the consonant.
The syllable structure allows for one or two initial consonants, one vowel or diphthong as a nucleus, and one or two final consonants.
The following restrictions apply:
The initial (C1) can be any consonant except /ŋ/.
If the initial consonant (C1) is /s/, then the second consonant (C2) may /m n p t k f w l/.
If the initial consonant (C1) is /s/ and the second consonant (C2) is /p t k /, / ɹ/ can occur.
If the initial consonant (C1) is a plosive or fricative, then the second consonant (C2) may be /ɹ w l/.
If the initial consonant (C1) is /h/ or / ç/ and the nucleus is /i a o/, then the second consonant (C2) may be /s j/.
The nucleus (V) may be any vowel or diphthong.
The first coda (C3) may be any consonant.
The second coda (C4) may be /s/, or /t or ç/ if it follows /ɹ w l/.
Any second coda but /s/ may be followed by /s/.
An anaptyctic /e/ may be inserted between a root and an affix, when the affix may cause a cluster not permitted.
Stress always falls on the final syllable.
There is nominally no strict word order, and sentence structure is highly flexible. However, SOV is the most frequent, and is obligatory in any situation where the argument roles are not otherwise made clear, for whatever reason.
Nominal phrases may consists of an case marker, cardinal or ordinal number, adjective(s), noun, genitive attribute, relative clause, reflexive pronoun
Nouns are followed by a case particle, which also inflects for number and definiteness. There are three grammatical cases: ergative, accusative, intransitive, and dative; and three numbers: singular, dual, and plural. Partatives do not mark number.
de Bif - "a cow" (erg)
jul Ber - "some beer" (intran)
nars Pfaulga - "the pig-dogs" (acc)
kuret Ben - "the two nights" (datj)
Demonstrative determiners are marked by a suffix added to articles.
der bif - "The Cow"
derla bif - "This Cow"
derjon bif - "the yonder cow"
To show possession using a noun, the noun's case particle is inflected with a possessive suffixe. To show possession using a pronoun, the pronoun is followed by a possessive suffixe.
Alienable Possessive particle: za
derza bif cauza - "the cow's house
mi za bif - "my cow"
Inalienable Possessive particle: ca
derca pfrau rikshá - "the woman's soul"
mi ca rikshá - "my soul"
Possessed particle: lo
derlo nom cauza - "the man of the house"
mi lo bif - "cow of mine"
Other Nominal Markers:
Second and third person pronouns distinguish for informal and formal.
1st Person: Mi
2nd Person: Du, Vu
3rd Person: Li, Cá
1st Person: Nus
2nd Person: Bós, Suted
3rd Person: Las, Cás
There is no grammatical gender/noun class system. However, in cases where semantic gender needs to be clarified, especially in animals and plants, a distinction is made by means of suffix particles. Masculinity is marked with "-lo" following a vowel (Pfaulga/ Pfaulgalo) or "-o" following a consonant (bif/bifo) and femininity is marked with "-ka" following a vowel (Pfaulga/ Pfaulgaka) or "-o" following a consonant (bif/bifa).
Similarly to nouns, verbs are not directly conjugated or otherwise inflected. Instead, they are followed by tense markers which may inflect agglitinatively for aspect, mood, evidentiality or miritivity, volition, and/or attitude.
There are four basic tenses - present, preterite, future, and gnomic.
Té- preterite ("simple past")
Ka- gnomic (unspecified/always - "as it was in the beginning, and now, and always")
There are four groups of aspects, each with it's own suffix added to the tense marker.
Progressive expresses an action currently in progress. -pa-
Inceptive indicates an action that is starting or about to start.
Pausative expresses an action currently in progress that is temporarily suspended.
Cessative expresses an action currently in progress that is ending or about to end.
Imerfective expresses a incompleted action. -ba-
Perfective expresses a completed action. -ke-
Frequentative indicates an action done regularly, regardles of interval.
Irregular indicates an action done intermittently, irregularly, at unpredictable intervals.
Iterative indicates an action which is done repeatedly, at regular or predictable intervals.
Generic indicates a broad, general state.
Punctual indicates instantaneous states.
Momentane indicates a momentary state.
Continuative expresses a continuing state. -ta-
Protractive indicates a state lasting for a long period, longer than expected or normal for the root verb, perhaps indefinitely
There are five modals, each with it's own suffix added to the tense marker following the aspect.
Indicative - unmarked
Other Verbal Markers:
volitional (deliberate actions or states that are controllable by the subject)
non-volitional (actions or states that are either non-deliberate or uncontrollable by the subject)
volitional - unmarked
Intensive: indicates an intense situation/action
Moderative: indicates a moderately intense situation/action
Attenuative: indicates an non-intense situation/action